The establishment of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) by the Council in December 2017 has raised cooperation on defence among the participating EU Member States to a new level.
Introduced by the Lisbon Treaty on European Union (article 42.6, 46 and Protocol 10), PESCO is a framework and process to deepen defence cooperation between those EU Member States who are capable and willing to do so. 25 EU Member States have joined PESCO and subscribed to more binding commitments to invest, plan, develop and operate defence capabilities more together, within the Union framework. The objective is to jointly arrive at a coherent full spectrum of defence capabilities available to Member States for national and multinational (EU, NATO, UN, etc.) missions and operations. This will enhance the EU’s capacity as an international security actor, contribute to the protection of the EU citizens and maximise the effectiveness of defence spending. More


The key difference between PESCO and other forms of cooperation is the legally binding nature of the commitments undertaken by the 25 Member States which participate in PESCO.

The list of ambitious and more binding common commitments undertaken by each of the participating PESCO contains 20 individual commitments, split into the five key areas set out by art.2 of Protocol N°10 on PESCO annexed to the Lisbon Treaty. More


An initial list of 17 projects to be developed under PESCO was adopted by the Council on 6 March 2018. A second batch of 17 projects to be developed under PESCO was adopted by the Council on 19 November 2018. And finally, a third batch of 13 additional projects to be developed under PESCO was adopted by the Council on 12 November 2019. One PESCO project from the first batch has been officially closed by its project members.
Each of the projects is carried forward by varying group of PESCO participating Member States (project members) and is coordinated by one or more PESCO participating Member States (project coordinators). The project members may agree among themselves to allow other participating Member States to join as a project member or to become observer to the project.
Below is an overview and short description of all the 46 projects that are being developed in the context of PESCO and covering areas such as training, land, maritime, air, cyber, and joint enablers:


The European External Action Service (EEAS), including the EU Military Staff (EUMS), and the European Defence Agency (EDA) jointly act as the PESCO Secretariat, providing a single point of contact within the Union’s framework for all PESCO matters. More


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